How to Write a Conclusion for Essay, Research Paper, Project, School etc.

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The conclusion of a text is important for its overall impression. It rounds off the text and summarizes key results. In the following you will find out what significance the conclusion has for your text, how you succeed in formulating a successful conclusion to your work, and which mistakes you should avoid.


Definition of conclusion

How to Write a Conclusion
How to Write a Conclusion

The term conclusion is derived from the Latin word facit , which means “it does” or “it results” . Other terms or synonyms are résumé , perspectives , outlook or result . The conclusion is a judgmental summary in which a result is usually presented and conclusions are  drawn.

The conclusion is at the end of the text and is an integral part of various types of text. Text types that typically contain a conclusion are scientific papers as homework , bachelor theses and master’s theses in the study or research papers in school. Final reports of any kind, such as an internship report, also end with a conclusion.


Function of the conclusion

The conclusion takes up the questions of the introduction and thus forms a closed framework between the beginning and the end . You should answer all the questions that you raised at the beginning.

The conclusion is the last part of the text that the reader reads and is therefore particularly important. The information last displayed is particularly easy to remember.


Length of the conclusion

One cannot make a general statement about the ideal length of a conclusion. The extent of the conclusion differs depending on the text form. The more extensive and in-depth your text or work is, the more detailed your conclusion should be.

In general, your conclusion should be about ten percent of the page numbers of your previous work, but usually no more than two pages. For a term paper of 15 pages, your conclusion should be between one and two pages long.


Conclusion with different types of text

Not only the scope, but also the components of the conclusion vary depending on the type of text you are writing it for. Basically, you should differentiate between instructive texts such as scientific papers and communicative texts such as reports and discussions.

Conclusion for scientific work

The conclusion completes your scientific work such as housework , dissertation or master’s thesis from. Although it is at the end of the work, it has a high priority and must not be neglected.

However, before you start to write your conclusion, you should briefly think about the elaboration. Make yourself aware that you have completed the researching part of your work and are now writing the conclusion.

  • Take the reader’s perspective

When writing your conclusion, you should make it clear to yourself again who will read it later or to whom it is addressed. You have dealt intensively with the topic of your work over a long period of time and the content appears to you for granted.

So it may seem to you that you are just repeating yourself in your conclusion. But remember that the reader is unlikely to have that in-depth knowledge. It is therefore important to take up the hypothesis developed at the beginning, to present the central findings of your work and finally to answer the research question.

  • Abstract

While you are in the main part of your work on the content level, you write the conclusion a little more distanced. You deal exclusively with your research question objectively and factually.

You only express your personal opinion if it is expressly desired. That depends entirely on your course of study and the specifications of your work.

Components of the conclusion in scientific papers + examples

After you are aware of the perspective you need to take, you begin to actually write your conclusion. It usually contains the following components:

  1. Summary of results

First you come back to your research question and summarize your main findings from the main part. It is important that you can separate the most important points from less important aspects.

The aim of the present study was to …

For this purpose …

It turned out that … Because …

As far as the … is concerned, it could be shown on the basis of … that …

On the other hand, it had to be stated that …

  1. Answering the research question

You will then answer your research question based on the results and findings . The reader could theoretically only read the introduction and the conclusion and would still be able to understand the topic and the problem.

The results of the investigation … have confirmed the original hypothesis.

In conclusion, it can be stated that the question of whether … must be answered in a differentiated manner. On the one hand … On the other hand … Thus …

  1. Interpretation of the results

In addition, you should reflect on the results of your work, evaluate them critically and place them in the research context. So show what contribution your scientific work makes to the topic or research area. Compare whether you come to similar or different results as other scientists.

You should also point out what can and cannot be derived from your work. Also address open questions or existing problems.

On the other hand, it had to be established that the implementation of … did not lead to a clear result with regard to the connection between … and …

  1. Outlook on possible research fields

Finally, you should give an outlook in your conclusion. To do this, you go beyond the scope of your work and consider which aspects from other, similar research fields could be considered.

This bachelor thesis has made a first research contribution on the topic … Further research could deal more closely with sub-area …

Due to the focus on … it was not possible to go into more detail in this bachelor thesis. However, this could offer an important approach for future research.


Conclusion in the internship report

How to Write a Conclusion
How to Write a Conclusion

There is also a conclusion at the end of reports such as an internship report as part of your studies. In an internship report it is also called reflection .

The aim of the conclusion is to present the internship from your own point of view and to reflect on the results. So you formulate a critical view of your experiences. Just like with academic papers, you have a final discussion on the previous report.

Components of the conclusion in reports + examples

The conclusion of the internship report differs in the components from the conclusion of an academic paper. It should contain the following elements:

  1. Summary of the report

First you briefly summarize your internship report. As an introduction, you can refer to the company and briefly outline the course of the internship. Avoid repeating sentences from the main body of your report.

As part of my studies, I did my internship from … to … in the department … in the company …

  1. Discussion of expectations and results

Then respond to your expectations and to what extent they have been met. Make it clear what you imagined before starting the internship and what promises the company made. Then compare the areas in which you were allowed to work and what you have learned. Also mention the expectations that went unfulfilled.

If your internship report contains a theoretical part, you should also take it into account in your conclusion. Compare to what extent the theoretical and expected target state differs from your actual experience.

In the following, the most important findings are discussed and my expectations of the internship are reflected.

The job description of the internship is characterized by the points …

The company has always kept these promises.

Another expectation that was important to me was …

  1. Answering the question

If you raised a question at the beginning of your internship report, you have to answer it in the conclusion. When answering the question, again take into account your theoretical knowledge, expectations and actual experiences.

  1. Reflection

This part of your conclusion is especially important. You present the experiences that you made during the internship and evaluate them . So you explain to what extent these experiences were positive or negative for you and why.

Also explain what previous knowledge you were able to use from your studies and what added value the internship brought you.

Overall, I really enjoyed the internship.

… I see in my estimation as needing improvement.

I would rather have …

I especially liked….

During my studies I already… learned what I could apply in my internship.

  1. Outlook for further development

Finally, you create an outlook for your internship. Explain whether the internship helped you with your ideas about your future development . Perhaps you have gained insights into whether you would like to work in this area later or whether you would like to specialize in one direction in your further studies.

Also address the impact the internship will have on your professional development. Think about whether this has created new or better opportunities.

The internship confirmed to me that… corresponds to my professional expectations.

For my academic career, I see myself confirmed that I am aiming for a master’s degree after completing my bachelor’s degree.

  1. Recommendation of the internship company

Finally, you can summarize whether you would recommend the company in which you did the internship. Explain the circumstances under which you think the internship makes sense.

Overall, I can highly recommend the company for an internship.


Tips for writing the conclusion

Regardless of what type of text you are writing a conclusion for, there are some rules and tips that you should follow in order to formulate a successful summary. The following tips will help you to make writing easier and to make the text easier to understand.

  • Write a conclusion at the end

It makes sense to only write the conclusion at the very end of your text. You should be sure that the main part is complete and contains everything it should contain. Otherwise there is a risk that further ideas or thoughts will come to you while you are summarizing your results and findings in the conclusion.

  • Plan enough time

The conclusion is the last part of the text, but is still an important part. You shouldn’t underestimate the time you need to write your conclusion. In particular, you should take your time answering the research question or hypothesis . If you are pressed for time , you run the risk of writing down the conclusion quickly and just repeating yourself.

  • Appropriate writing style

Like the rest of the text, the conclusion should be easy to read and easy to understand. The conclusion also includes the fact that it concentrates on the main findings and statements and should therefore be formulated in a particularly understandable manner.

Therefore, you should formulate sentences as short and simple as possible and avoid long, nested sentence constructions. Connections become clear even if you present them in several sentences.

In general, you should keep the language neutral in your conclusion . Only when it comes to your personal opinions and experiences does it make sense to use the personal pronoun “I” and subjective feelings.


Typical mistakes when writing the conclusion

There are typical mistakes you can make when writing a conclusion. Before you start writing your conclusion, be aware of these mistakes so that you can avoid them from the start.

  • Repetition of the main part

Be careful not to bluntly repeat the content of the main part. Concentrate on briefly summarizing the main findings .

  • New content and insights

Under no circumstances should you include new content and knowledge in your conclusion. Everything that you formulate in your conclusion must have previously been dealt with in the main part .

  • Empty phrases

Try to avoid empty phrases when writing your conclusion. Of course, it’s not primarily about the conclusion that it is exciting and exciting to read. However, you should use as varied as possible the introduction and transition of sentences to improve reading fluency.

  • Lurid formulations

You should also avoid evaluative formulations such as “obvious” or “of course”. Nothing can be taken for granted .So you would assume knowledge of the reader that you cannot assume.

 

 

 

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