All the answers for IGNOU MHI-02 Modern World can be found below:
IGNOU MHI-02 Modern World Solved Assignment 2021-22
Course Code: MHI-02
Assignment Code: MHI-02/AST/TMA/2021-2022
Total Marks: 100
Section – A
1. How did the Renaissance and the Enlightenment contribute to the making of modern world? 20
2. Analyze the major views criticizing capitalism. 20
3. What do you understand by bureaucratization? Analyze the process of bureaucratization in trade unions. 20
Answer: Bureaucratisation can be defined as “ the process of centralization and expansion, as well as the professionalisation of all institutions, and it occurs in government as well as other major power structures such as political parties, corporations, trade unions, the armed forces, religious, educational, legal, medical, along with other technical institutions, as well as what has come to be called as non-governmental organisations.” Its ideas are well-understood. It entails centralising decision-making through a strict line of authority, hiring professional “experts” based on uniform examination and certification requirements, requiring impersonal conformity to norms and regulations, and aiming near-complete action calculability. An officer in any of these hierarchies operates impersonally, on the ground of competence, and obeys and gives “legitimate” directions, that is, instructions constructed in line with the law and its norms and regulations. The system works like a machine with movable interchangeable components, and particular officials may be easily changed. It appeals to all modern rulers, who are continually seeking for effective, politically dependable, impersonal, and professional tools of authority.
Bureaucracies, on the other hand, are only the tools of modern rulers, not the rulers themselves. Although rulers are selected in a variety of ways across the world, the majority of them are elected rather than rising through the ranks of a bureaucracy. Regardless they must follow laws most of the time, election procedures are not bureaucratic; rather, electoral machines such as political parties and their followers are or aspire to be highly bureaucratic entities. As a result, those at the top who eventually control are elected by non-bureaucratic means, but they dominate with bureaucratic tools.
BUREAUCRATIZATION IN TRADE UNIONS
The ambitions of the “exploited” to guarantee an equitable distribution of power and riches are embodied in unions, the other characteristically democratic institution of contemporary times. They are, without a doubt, the first and most important non-governmental organisation (NGOs). Their roots and formal methods are inherently democratic: they were, and continue to be, largely voluntary organisations of people expressing their rights. They were exactly such entities during the majority of the nineteenth century, blooming in factories and industries as and when the need arose, mainly to safeguard their pay or demand greater pay and shorter working time. Factories were tiny, unions were small, and talks between a few employees and a boss were intensely personal. However, beginning in the 1980s, with a fresh wave of industrialization, new technology, and new management structures, tremendous changes occurred. Plants expanded in size, technology varied and got more sophisticated, and administration and ownership were separated, resulting in the birth of professional management. Workers’ protest movements became more complicated, with a broader reach that included many factories, an entire industry, or a region, while union-management dialogues became more professional and less personal. A professional union official appeared beside the professional management. Two new bureaucracies, corporate management and of labour unions, began to collide. Union officials were now chosen based on their qualifications, submitted to competitive selection tests, and then trained on the job, much as managers needed academic credentials, selection methods, and training courses. They might be anybody picked for their talents in organising research, devising action plans, administrative duties, and negotiation; members were no longer only workers advocating other workers. Because union leaders were expected to bargain on costs of production, productivity, profits, pay rates, standards of living, insurances, welfare, and other issues on a continuous basis, negotiating skills, particularly strong proficiency in mathematics and economics, were extremely important. However, the demand was not negotiable. Unions had to base their plans on the status of the economy, not just a particular plant or sector; their economic knowledge and ability to persuade a larger audience about the impact of their activities on the economy and the proportion of the people became critical. As union activity began to play a role in national elections, this became increasingly difficult. Political parties from of the left to the right sought assistance from labour unions, and the democratic socialist or labour parties with socialist beliefs were most active and had the biggest following from among working class. Because unions backed certain political parties, they had to plan, market, and act in concert with those parties and their agendas. Both the party and union bureaucracies had to work together, putting the average voter and union member well behind.
From the early 20th century, union, party, and civil service representatives had to collaborate together and on an equal basis with similar levels of competence as socialist ministers reached governments, and as social democrats have become governments or led coalition governments from the 1920s. Unions formed national organisations to represent their members on a national level. The Trades Union Congress (TUC) in the United Kingdom, and the Deutsche Gewerkshaftsbund (DGB) in Germany, the Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) in France, were examples of such federations of unions, or head organisations. In a single nation, there might be more than one such federation, with each ideological direction having its own head organisation. These are just a few instances of what’s available. As a result, the initial union of a single factory was formed. Bureaucratization initially joined a federation of unions inside an industry, and these federations eventually established a nationwide federation, such as the TUC. As one might expect, these massive organisations could only be managed by full-time paid administrators, not by employees who took time off to care after the interests of other personnel. The Confederation of British Industry (CBI), which represents British capitalists, was a classic example of how these national federations consistently negotiated and signed contracts with national federations of employers.
4. What is de-colonization? Explain the various approaches towards de-colonization. 20
5. Write short notes on any two of the following in about 250 words each. 10+10
i) Science versus religion
ii) Marxian perspective on state
iii) Typologies of nationalism explained by Gellner
Section – B
6. Discuss the nature of international rivalries in the 20th century. 20
7. What is colonialism? Discuss the different stages of colonialism. 20
Answer: Colonialism, like industrial capitalism, is a relatively recent historical event. It refers to a separate period in the colony’s contemporary historical development that occurs between the traditional and modern capitalist economies. It is a well-organized whole, a unique social entity in which a foreign capitalist class has fundamental power over the economy and society. The shape of the colonial structure changes throughout time as the historical evolution of capitalism as a global system changes. Colonialism should be viewed as a distinct framework. Some academics contend that colonialism meant more than just the imposition of foreign political dominance over a native economy. It wasn’t only the result of a massive confidence game based on the colonized’s docility, collaboration, or disunity, bolstered by the racial arrogance of their better-armed white overlords. ‘Empires were multinational institutions formed to deploy the world’s resources’ (Hopkins, 1999) is likewise inadequate; it concentrates on the metropolis rather than the colonies. A colony was also not a transitional economy that would have turned into a full-fledged capitalist economy over time. It is likewise erroneous to say that the colony’s pre-capitalist vestiges caused “arrested expansion.” Many apologists, such as Morris D. Morris, characterised colonialism as an attempt at modernization, economic progress, and capitalist transplanting that failed due to the stifling influence of traditions in the colonies.
The colonial economy would be neither pre-capitalist nor capitalist; rather, it was colonial, i.e., a hybrid. Colonialism was a form of skewed capitalism. Capitalism did not come to the colony as a result of its integration into the global economy. The colony did not grow in the divided image of the home nation; rather, it developed on the opposite, non-developmental aspect of the mother country. Colonialism did not build social and productive capabilities; rather, it weakened them, resulting in conflicts and the progression to the next stage.
Colonialism was divided into three phases.
First Stage: Plunder and Monopoly Trade
The initial stage has two primary goals. To make commerce more lucrative, locally created items were to be purchased at a low cost. Local and European rivals were to be kept out of this. While competing European corporations were vanquished in battle, territorial conquest kept local businessmen out of the profitable trade. As a result, the first stage was characterised by commercial monopoly.
Second, the colony’s political conquest allowed for pillage and surplus confiscation. In the first stage, for instance, a large amount of money was transferred from India to Britain. It was about 2% to 3% of Britain’s national income at the time. The conventional economic and political structures were established by colonialism. In the first stage, no fundamental modifications were implemented.
Second Stage: The Free Trade Era
The colony’s abundant markets for produced goods piqued the interest of the city’ industrial elites. In order to finance the purchase of manufactured products, the colony’s exporting had to be increased. To reduce reliance on non-empire sources, the metropolitan bourgeoisie also desired to promote the colony as a raw – materials provider. Increased exports would also empower the colony to pay for traders’ high wages and profits. Plunder as a form of excess appropriation was rejected by the industrial elite on the grounds that it would ruin the goose that lay the golden eggs. In this time, trade was the instrument for appropriating the social surplus. Changes in the economics, politics, administration, social, cultural, and ideological structures were undertaken at this point to allow for new forms of exploitation. Expansion and modernisation were the rallying cries. The home nation and the world capitalist economy were to be absorbed into the colony. Plantations, trade, transportation, mining, and industries were all permitted to be developed by capitalists. The communication and transport infrastructure was created to make it easier to carry large amounts of raw materials to port for exporting. The new political doctrine was liberal imperialism. The rulers’ propaganda was to teach the people how to govern themselves.
Third stage: The Financing Capital Era
In the third stage, there was a fierce competition for markets and raw resources and food grains. The large-scale buildup of money in the city prompted the hunt for foreign investment opportunities. Where the imperial powers possessed colonies, these interests were best fulfilled. As a result, the colony was subjected to more intense control in order to defend the imperial power’s interests. The tone in the ideological domain was one of response. The demand for tighter control grew. There was no longer any idea of self-government; instead, benign despotism became the new doctrine, in which the colonial people were viewed as children who would always require guardianship. Because of rapid depletion in the prior phases, the colony was unable to absorb metropolitan capital or boost its raw – materials exports, which was a fundamental contradiction in this stage. To address this issue, a modest modernization approach was adopted, but colonialism’s ideology could not be overturned. The colony’s continued exploitation was hampered by economic decline. The third stage did not always take off. Some colonies’ economies had been so badly damaged by colonialism that they could barely absorb any capital input. Older kinds of abuse persisted in many colonies. In India, for instance, even in the third phase, the prior two kinds persisted.
8. Write a note on the consumerist movement as it developed in Europe. 20
9. Explain some major technological innovations made in the 20th century. 20
10. Write short notes on any two of the following in about 250 words each. 10+10
i) Economic theories explaining imperialism
ii) The Decembrist Uprising
iii) Limitations of modern warfare
iv) Ecological Awareness.
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The TMA is primarily focused with evaluating your ability to apply and comprehend the course content in its entirety. In this assignment, you are not needed to copy pieces of information from the course material; rather, you are expected to use the abilities of critical appreciation that you may have developed throughout your course of study. This assignment is intended to be both a teaching tool and a performance evaluation tool. Please make sure that you read all of the texts that have been assigned for this course. Make notes as you go along to help you remember things. If there is anything you do not understand, please seek clarification from your Counselor at the Study Center. As soon as you are able to complete the project to your satisfaction, you will be prepared to take the test confidently.
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