All of the answers to “MEG 04 Aspects of Language 2021-22” can be found below.
MEG 04 Aspects of Language Solved Assignment 2021-22
ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE
Based on Blocks (1-9)
Course Code: MEG-04/ 2021-22
Max. Marks: 100
Answer all questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write short notes on the following:
Answer: Lunguage refers to the system or structure of a language, while parole refers to the act of speaking in a language or the actual act of speaking itself.
According to Saussure, we should make a distinction between the language system (langue) and the act of speaking or writing the language within the larger field of linguistic activity (langage) (parole). As a reminder, the three-way difference may be interpreted as follows:
Langage- It is defined as “the broad ability that separates man from other creatures.”
Langue- It is defined as a linguistic framework that includes vocabulary, construction principles, idioms, and pronunciation norms, among other things.
Parole- As a language that may be used in both speech and writing in a given situation.
According to Saussure, language is something that is both social and limiting, as he said. It is both a social result of the capacity of speech and a set of essential norms that have been established by a social body in order to enable people to use that faculty. While the former implies that it is in the hands of the community of speakers, the latter implies that it is something that is fixed.
Parole, on the other hand, is a zone of unrestricted movement. It is a deliberate and intelligent act committed by a single person. The difference between langue and parole has served as the foundation for all subsequent structuralist models of linguistics.
Langue and Parole are the components of human speech or language. In English, there is no precise equivalent for La Language. It encompasses the ability to communicate in all of its forms and expressions. Language is a human speaking capacity that is present in all normal human beings owing to genetics, but that needs the right environmental stimulus or stimuli to develop properly. It is our ability to communicate with one another. It has a lot of different sides and is quite diverse. It may be read in its entirety. It encompasses many aspects at once, including physical, physiological, and psychological. It is the property of both the person and the community. We can’t place it in a category of human characteristics since we haven’t found its unit, but it’s a universal behaviour attribute that anthropologists and biologists are more interested in than linguists who start with Langue and Parole.
According to Saussure, the entirety of Langue may be deduced from an analysis of all language users’ recollections. It is the storehouse, the sum total of what people envision when they think about words. It should not be confused with human speech, of which it is just a small component, although an important one. It is a social result of the capacity of speech, as well as a set of essential conventions established by a social body to allow people to use that faculty. Language is a language’s lexical, grammatical, and phonological structure. It is a language’s collective fact. It’s a sociological phenomenon in the workplace. It is solid and homogeneous. It’s something we can look into scientifically. It is a community’s grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation system.
La langue is a collective pattern that exists as “a total of impressions implanted in each person’s brain…, like a dictionary of which identical copies have been given to each individual… it exists in each individual, but it is common to all.” La langue is a collection of signals that each speaker has acquired from the community’s other speakers. It is dormant. It’s a collection of customs that we’ve all inherited from the community.
Finally, Langue needs to be linked to Parole, which is the real uses of people within a society shown in daily speech, which is the controllable or construable psychophysical activity. The collection of all actually generated utterances is known as parole. Parole is a personal, dynamic, and social action that occurs at a certain time and place. The sole item accessible for direct observation by the linguist is parole, which is something personal. It is a linguist’s consistent and extended observation. It is continuous and generalised to the point that an ordinary speaker cannot produce or alter it.
La Parole, on the other hand, is active and refers to the individual’s real speaking act. Consider each act of speaking as a separate event to get a better understanding. It’s one-of-a-kind because it represents the shaky, shifting connection between language, the exact environmental circumstances that trigger certain utterances, and personal characteristics. Thus, the personality, nature, and a variety of other external factors influencing both the creation and reception of a speech act define each individual speech act. Parole provides the facts on which language claims are based; parole is not universal, but rather particular, temporary, and heterogeneous.
ii) Types of Negation and its interaction with Scope
iii) Code mixing vs code switching
Using More Than One Language or Variety in Communication Code-switching is a terminology used in linguistics to refer to the use of more than one language or variety in conversation. When bilingual speakers encounter difficulties when conversing with another bilingual, they may switch their language from code to code in the construction of sentences in order to ensure that the communicator understands them; they may do this with the same linguistic background and it may occur multiple times.
In a discussion, code switching is one of many alternatives of speaking in two or more languages at the same time. Code-switching is defined by Hymes as a general term for the alternate use of two or more languages, dialects of a language, or even speech styles, whereas Bokamba defines code-switching as the mixing of words, phrases, and sentences from two different grammatical systems throughout sentence boundaries inside the same speech event.
In general, there are a variety of viewpoints on code-switching. Among the most important approaches in sociolinguistics is the study of social reasons for switching, a line of research that focuses both on immediate discourse variables such as lexical need, as well as on more remote ones such as speaker or group identification, as well as relationship-building (solidarity). Code-switching may also represent how often a person employs certain phrases from one or the other language in his everyday interactions; as a result, a term from one language may come to mind more easily than the corresponding expression in the other language. Code-switching may happen between or inside sentences.
Code-mixing is a phenomena that is closely linked to code-switching in terms of its effects. If the conversationalist uses both languages simultaneously, or switches between two languages so often that they shift from one tongue to the other within a single speech, this is known as a double linguistic fluency. Without changing the subject, code mixing may occur at any level of the language, including the phonological, morphological, and structural levels of the language as well as lexical elements.
We couldn’t escape the fact that the first language has a significant impact on the second language. The interaction and mixing of different languages results in the development of new languages. The majority of individuals in the culture blend their native language with other languages by borrowing or incorporating parts of other languages into their speech, but they may still be affected by their original language in certain cases.
Code-mixing is one of the main types of language choice, and it is more nuanced than code-switching. It is one of the most common types of language choice. In code-mixed sentences, bits and parts of one language are utilised while the speaker is essentially speaking in another language, resulting in a muddled message. It is common for these ‘bits’ of the other language to be words, but they may also be sentences or bigger units of the language.
iv) Generative grammar
Answer: A generative grammar may be described as a collection of formal rules for a certain language; for example, one might talk of an English generative grammar. In this sense, a generative grammar is a formal instrument that can describe (“generate”) all of a language’s grammatical sentences. In a more specific sense, a generative grammar is a formal device or method that may be used to determine whether or not a given sentence is grammatically correct.
Generic grammar is often able to produce an unlimited number of strings from a certain number of rules. Because human brains have a limited capacity, yet humans can create and comprehend a vast number of different phrases, these characteristics are desirable for a model of natural language. Some linguists even argue that the number of grammatical sentences in any natural language is limitless.
The Chomsky hierarchy, developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s, may be used to define and compare generative grammars. A chart shows a progression of formal grammar types with increasing expressive capacity. Regular grammars (type 3) are one of the most basic kinds; Chomsky argues that regular languages are inadequate as models for human language since all human languages allow for hierarchical embedding of strings inside strings.
A derivation tree may be used to show how a context-free language derives a sentence. Derivation trees are often studied by generative grammar linguists as a major topic of research. According to this viewpoint, a sentence is a tree with subordinate and superordinate branches linked at nodes, rather than a string of words.
2. Languages enrich and evolve through borrowings. Discuss the various borrowings in English language by giving examples.
Answer: The English language has continuously adopted terms from many sources throughout the course of its 1500-year history. The primary reasons for adopting terms from different sources have been contact with foreign civilizations through conquering and cooperation, socio-political conditions, and the desire to convey new concepts.
External factors in England’s history, such as the Christianization of the country in 597 A.D., Scandinavian invasions, the Norman conquest, the Hundred Years’ War, the rise of the middle class, the Renaissance, the expansion of the British Empire, and so on, have all aided in the expansion of English vocabulary.
The history of the English language is usually divided into three major eras for ease of reference:
a) Old English Period (450 A.D. – 1150 A.D.)
(b) Middle English Period (1150 A.D. – 1500 A.D.)
(c) Modern English Period: 1500 and onwards:
In all three eras of the English language’s history, there is plenty of evidence of foreign terms being borrowed. Despite modest borrowings, the Old English lexicon was mostly Teutonic. Rather than external borrowings, the vocabulary was expanded via combination. A significant number of foreign terms only entered the English lexicon as a result of the Norman invasion.
Let us now look at the numerous foreign borrowings that helped to shape the English lexicon.
The Teutons’ conquest over the Celts led in the mixing of these two races, as well as their languages. The place-names are the most visible consequence of the interaction between these two languages. For example, the Celtic term Canti or Cantion, whose meaning is unclear, gave its name to the Kingdom of Kent.
Devonshire, Cornwall, and Cumberland, for example, all have Celtic roots. Even the name London is most likely derived from a Celtic word.
In England, not only place names but also hill and river names have Celtic roots. Avon, Dover, Wye, and other Celtic river names have been retained in the names of Avon, Dover, and Wye, among others.
Outside of place names, Celtic has had a minimal impact on English. Due to daily interaction between individuals of both races, a few terms like binn (basket, crib), braft (cloak), and brocc (brock on badger) were adopted into English. Irish missionaries brought terms into English such as ancor (hermit), dry (magician), cine (gathering of parchment leaves), Cross, and so on. Many of these terms became obsolete quickly, while others just had local currency.
(a) Latin borrowings in the Old English Period
The incorporation of Latin terms into the English lexicon occurred over a long period of time. England’s interaction with Latin culture ushered in this Latin impact on the English language. Initially, agricultural and military terms were extensively borrowed.
In this time, words like camp, segn, which means banner, pil (pointed stick, javelin), pytt (pit), mil, (mile), millestr (courtesan), and others were borrowed. Words connected with trade, such as ceup (cheap, bargain), pund (pound), mydd (bushel), mynet (coin), and seam (burden, weight), gradually made their way into the English language. Because of the vastness of the wine trade, we often hear terms such as win (wine), must (fresh wine), eced (vinegar), flase (flask, bottle), and so on. Words associated with domestic life, such as cytel (kettle), mise (table), scamol (bench, stool), cycene (kitchen), cuppe (cup), disc (disc), and others, were also borrowed.
Furthermore, a few Latin terms entered the English language via Celtic transmission during this first period of Latin borrowings. A good example is the Latin term ceaster, which meaning camp. In Old English, this term was used to describe a town or enclosed settlement. It appears in English place names like as Dorchester, Manchester, and Winchester, among others. Other Celtic terms include port (harbour, gate, town), munt (mountain), and torr (tor) (tower, yock).
Another wave of Latin borrowings into English starts with the Christianization of Britain in 597 A.D. Many new concepts arose as a result of the new religion, and there was a need to describe them in a way that the previous language could not. As a result, a huge influx of Latin terms into English occurred.
The terms that were borrowed from Latin during this period are both well-known and well-learned. Church, bishop, and other well-known terms are included, while the more learned terms include alms, alter, angel, anthem, canon, minister, hymn, pope, psalm, relic, and others.
Following the enormous impact the Church had on the people’s home lives, terms related to household items such as clothes (cap, sill) and food were gradually introduced. Examples include beet, lentil, millets millet, radish, oyster and other vegetables. Various plant and tree names were given Latin designations, such as pine, balsam, lily, and myrrh, as well as the generic term “plant.” A large number of terms that are associated with education and learning, such as school, master, poetry, grammatic(al), and so on, may be traced back to Latin.
With the Benedictine Reform, which sought to improve England’s cultural and ecclesiastical climate, a new collection of Latin terms made their way into English. These were essentially acquired terms that conveyed scientific and learnt concepts. Religious terms such as Antichrist, apostle, canticle, credo, prophet, sabbath, Synagogue, and so on are examples.
Literary words such as accent, history, paper, brief, pumice, are used.
Medical terms such as cancer, paralysis, plaster, and so on.
Names of trees such as cedar, cypress, fig, and so on
Names of animals such as camels, tigers, scorpions, and so on.
Thus, 450 Latin terms emerge in English before the end of the Old English era as a consequence of the Christianization of Britain mentioned above.
b) Borrowings from the Latin Language during the Middle English Period.
Although many of the terms that were acquired during the Middle English era came about as a result of French influence, there were a number of words that were directly taken from the Latin language. During this time period, a significant number of Latin terms made their way into the English language via the translation of literary works into English. For example, in Trevia’s translation of Bartholomew Anglicus’ “De Proprietatibus Rerum,” we come across several hundred Latin terms that are unfamiliar to us. With the translation of the “Vulgates Bible,” terms such as generation, persecution, and transnigration were introduced to the English language. There are numerous other terms used during this time period that have been borrowed from various fields such as law, medicine, allegory, theology and science. There are also terms used during this time period that have been borrowed from literature and literature-related fields such as conspiracy, confinement, frustrate, genius, infinite, intellect, limbo and pulpit.
In addition, several odd terms were acquired from Latin in the 15th century, particularly by poets and authors, and used in English. Poets tried to innovate in the language by using some Latin terms such as abusion, dispone, equipolent, tenebrous, and so on. These words were borrowed from the Latin language.
Borrowings from Latin in the Modern Period
The resurgence of classical study in the 16th century was the catalyst for an explosion in the number of English terms acquired from Latin. While it is impossible to quantify the number of Middle English loans from Latin since many were indirectly acquired through French, there is little question that the vast majority of borrowings in early Modern English came straight from Latin.
Affidavit, agenda, alibi, animal, bonus, deficit, exit, extra, fact, maximum, memorandum, omnibus, propaganda, veto are just a few examples.
During the Renaissance, several French terms were redesigned to be more similar to their Latin counterparts. For example, while Chaucer uses the term “describe,” the form describe does not exist until the 16th century. Due to Latin influence, “perfet” and “parfet” also became flawless.
Excessive Latinization of English was criticised, and new Latin phrases were called “ink-horn terms” by critics in the 16th century, referring to their origins in the pens of nobles.
In modern technical and scientific English, Latin shares the honour of being the source of a slew of new terms with Greek. Interstellar, coaxial, fission, penicillin, neutron, mutant, radium, spectrum, sulfa, and other scientific terms have become commonplace in English. Hybrid forms (part Latin, half Greek) such as egomaniac, speleology, terramyein, and others have also made significant inroads into the English vocabulary.
The introduction of Latin terms throughout the modern era is notable for the fact that they did so primarily via the medium of writing. Except for the oldest ones, the Latin aspects in English have been the product of churchmen and academics.
Borrowings from the Greek
In terms of direct Greek borrowings into Old and Middle English, there were practically none. Church, devil, and angel are three of the few ancient borrowed terms from Greek. All of them, however, were derived from Latin. Diet, geography, logic, physic, rhetoric, surgery, and theology were all borrowed later in the Middle Ages, sometimes via Latin and sometimes through French. Greek terms started to enter the English lexicon in large quantities during the Renaissance, and even then, they were Latinized in spelling and termination. Much of contemporary scientific terminology is derived from Greek, but it is possible that it entered the English through French (e.g. barometer, thermometer, etc.).
Greek borrowing is often learned in the nature and are found in many disciplines such as poetics (such as comedy, tragedy, disasters, dialogue, peripety, prologue, the stage and many more), natural science ( zoology, bacteriology, botany, histology, physics, etc).and in physics such as (proton, atomic, meson, cyclotron, isotope etc.)
Borrowings From French
Despite the fact that Latin and Greek effects on English started far earlier than those on French, they remained minor until the Middle Ages. French, on the other hand, had a late start but grew quickly, and by the 13th century, it had infiltrated the English language much more deeply than Latin or Greek. Today, French terms are an integral component of the modern English language. Scholars remind out that these French phrases were “popular words,” while the Latin and Greek ones were more “learned.”
The Normans brought the first wave of French influence, followed by the Parisian or Central French impact. Borrowings from the Normans started well before the invasion of 1066 and lasted for a century and a half. However, the French of Paris had grown in popularity by that time, and the Norman dialect had lost its status as a source of new borrowings. This may explain why certain French words were repeated. For example, the English borrowed cattle and catch from the Normans, but chatel and charr from the Parisians. Despite the fact that the meanings of these “doubles” have evolved, their origins may still be traced.
Concepts connected with religion and the church formed the first major collection of borrowed ideas. Cell, chaplain, charity, evangelist, grace, mercy, miracle, nativity, paradise, passion, sacrament, and saint were all introduced in the eleventh century. While these terms refer to the religion’s more formal and external aspects, thirteenth-century borrowings such as agony, comfort, conscience, devotion, patience, purity, and redemption speak to the religion’s more inner and personal aspects.
Law, governance, military affairs, and polite society norms are examples of areas where borrowing from the French was prevalent. Suit, plead, plaintiff, judge, jury, bail, embezzlement, lease, perjury, and other legal words associated with an early date are few examples.
Chancellor, country, exchequer, govern, minister, power, and rule are all words associated with national government. It’s fascinating to see how French borrowings represent views about war and the military. For example, three Old English terms, “here, fierd, and werod,” had to compete with the word army. The ancient terms weren’t entirely supplanted until the 15th century. However, a significant amount of French military jargon was adopted early on: assault, company, enemy, lance, lieutenant, navy, sergeant, soldier, and soldiers are only a few examples. Even later borrowings like captain and colonel may be traced back to the French. Attack, barricade, commandant, corps, dragoon, march, and slaughter are only a few examples of early modern English borrowings. Up to the 18th century, people continued to borrow terms connected with military matters. The French have recently adopted barrage and camouflage.
Another set of terms related to polite society’s use and conventions entered English early from French. Words like dinner, supper, fork, plate, and napkin reflected the French’s “refined” manners, while chivalry, honour, and elegance conveyed courtly and elegant ideals. While many animals’ names are English (ox, cow, calf, etc.) throughout their lifetimes, they appear on the table with French names (beef, mutton, pork, bacon, etc). Sauce, fry, roast, pastry, soup, and sausage are some of the other food-related terms.
Clothes are referred to as apparel, costume, dress, and garment in general, as well as decollete, chemise, and lingerie in more particular terms. The words “art” and “beauty,” as well as “colour,” “design,” “ornament,” and “tapestry,” are among the oldest terms for art. Aisle, arch, chancel, column, pillar, porch, and other architectural words are all derived from the French language.
While several of the more common professions, such as baker, fisherman, miller, shepherd, and shoemaker, have retained their original names, many others, particularly the more skilled trades, have adopted French titles: barber, butcher, carpenter, mason, painter, and tailor are examples.
Finally, in every area where the French are pioneers, English continues to draw from them. This category includes a lot of words in psychology and psychoanalysis. Aileron, cadre, empennage fuselage, hangar, and nacelle (all related to aircraft) are examples of recent borrowings.
It is not to be assumed that the English language has become anything other than English due to significant borrowings of several thousand French terms. The foundations of English lexicon remain the same. The Englishman eats, drinks, and sleeps in English, regardless of his social status. He walks, runs, rides, jumps, and swims in English.
Borrowings from Scandinavia
The language of the people known as “Danes” in Scandinavia, in addition to Greek, Latin, and French, is the only one that has made a really significant contribution to the English language’s lexicon. It may be extremely difficult to determine if a particular word in Modern English is a native word or a borrowed word since Old English and the language of the Scandinavian invaders are so close to each other. In nouns such as man, wife, father, folk, mother, house, life, winter, and summer; and verbs such as “will,” “can,” “meet,” “bring,” “hear,” “see,” “think,” “smile,” “ride,” and “spin,” as well as adjectives and adverbs such as full, wise, better, best, mine, over, and under, have all their origins related to Scandinavian Borrowings.
The impact of Scandinavian culture breathed new life into long-dead local terms. For example, the preposition “till” is only found rarely in Old English writings from the pre-Scandinavian era, but after that it becomes frequent in Old English texts from the later period.
There are a large number of places in the world that are named after Scandinavian countries. Over 600 locations in the United Kingdom have names that finish in -by, which is a strong indication of the presence of Scandinavian influence. Examples include Grimsby and Whitby, as well as Derby and Rugby (the Danish prefix -by meaning “farm” or “town”), among many other places.
A number of place names, including Althorp, Bishopsthorpe, and Linthrope, include the Scandinavian term ‘thorp,’ which meaning “village.” Thwaite, which means “a patch of land in the middle of nothing,” is a similar term. Hence the occurrence of names like Applethwaite and Braithwaite. A hundred places have names that finish in toft, which is a term for “piece of land.” Examples include Brimtoft, Eastoft, and Nortoft, all of which are in the county of Norfolk. There have already been documented in England more than 400 Scandinavian place-names in total.
Because of the antagonistic ties between the invaders and the English people during the early era of borrowing, the number of Scandinavian terms that occur in Old English is limited during the early period of borrowing. It is frequent to hear the following words connected with sea-roving and violence: barda (beaked ship), scegp (vessel), lip (fleet), dreng (warrior), orrest (battle), and so on.
Gradually, terms pertaining to the law, the social and administrative system, and other related topics begin to appear in the English language. The term “law” is of Scandinavian origin, as is the concept of “law.” Following the Norman conquest, many of the legal terms were eventually substituted by the French language.
With the appropriate integration of Scandinavians into the English language, a significant number of Scandinavian terms entered the English language. However, unlike Latin borrowings, which were typically taught, Scandinavian borrowings were in the domain of everyday give-and-take transactions.
Here is a sample of common words in English that have their origins in the Scandinavian language: , birth, bull, dirt, gap, kid link, race, skirt, sister, low, meek, rotten, egg, sly, tight, weak, bunk, bait, crawl, dig, gape, window and many more.
One of the most major foreign effects on the English language has been the Scandinavian influence, which ranks with Latin, Greek, and French as one of the most important foreign influences that have made substantial contributions to the English language.