Question 5: Translation is the most effective means of accessing various writings both in India and abroad. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Ans: Translation is a process of conveying a source text into a target text which should reflect the contents of the original text. Translation is a practice in which the translator tries to find out the closest equivalent meaning of a source text into the target text language. It involves interpretation of meaning of the source text and producing the same meaning in another language.
I agree that Translation is the most effective means of accessing various writings not only in India but throughout the world. Translation has been associated with the existence of human being. However, before the evolution of language and literature, the unwritten literature or orature, the human communication was undertaken through the mode of translation. The very idea of conceiving the thought and ideas has been co-related with the specific form of translation and that may be treated as conception and construct of ideas, views and transmitting them from one person to the other. As the father of Modern Western Philosophy Rene Descartes, propounded the philosophy of rationalism with the statement ‘cogito-ergo-sum’ which means “I think therefore I am”. Translation is also communicated with these perceptions which explore the communication and exchange of ideas and messages from one language to the other, one person to the other. This crosses with all kinds of boundaries relating to nation, identity, sex, caste and creed. Thus, it has become a necessity for the very existence of human being. As there are thousands of languages in the world and cultural and linguistic exchange is mandatory among the people, therefore, as Susan Bassenett said that translation is a fundamental act of human exchange. Translation is not meant to serve the purpose of linguistic exercise, but act as a means of communication among educated and literate one but also acts as a mode of communication among the common masses, even the uneducated ones.
The act of translation is associated with the extension and exchange of knowledge, academic enrichment and contribution to the areas of translation by research and other academic pursuits.
So a translator has to go into the background of the text to understand the text. Thus translator first de-contextualizes the original text and re-contextualizes it for the target text. This forms a good contextualized translation. Without doubt, translation in India has played and continues to play an important role in the modern development of its literatures as well as in the daily interactions between its many official languages. As a result of the multiplicity of Indian “regional languages” (i.e. bhasha such as Bengali, Tamil, Kannada, etc.) and of “foreign” languages (such as Persian, Arabic, English, etc.) in the Subcontinent, translation – or “adaptation,” according to periods and literary criteria – has always been present, from the time preceding the British colonization and up to the present day.
According to the statistics of the “Index” – contrary to all other translated literatures, whether belonging to European languages or not, Hindi is translated into one predominant language, i.e. English. Thus, we find that 25% of the translations are made into English – while the second target language for Hindi translations is Oriya with only 10% of the whole, ahead of German and Bengali