Modern political theory includes in itself a number of diverse trends like the institutional, structural, positivistic, empirical, scientific, the Marxist and behavioural and post-behavioral. These trends ruled the twentieth century for the most extent. Classical political theory was primarily idealistic, philosophical, normative, and to some degree historical; modern political theory, on the contrary, can be divided into two parts: liberal, which includes the pluralist, elitist, individualistic, and Marxist, which includes the dialectical-materialist. The whole classical heritage was labelled uninteresting by modern political theory, which began with the liberal position in the 15th-16th century and later expressed itself in institutional-positivist, empirical-behavioural, and post-behavioural movements. From Merriam and Key to Dahl, Easton and Casswell, their proponents emphasised the ‘present’ more than the ‘past’; the ‘living’ instead of the ‘dull’; the ‘immediate’ more than the’remote’; the ‘process-oriented’ more than the ‘purpose-oriented’; the ‘objective’ more than the ‘subjective’; the ‘analytic’ more than the ‘philosophic’; the ‘explanatory’ more than the ‘descriptive’. more scientific’ than theoritical. Through its western liberal-democratic slant, modern political theory tried to create a science of politics that was empirical, objective, observable, quantifiable, value-free and operational. Its characteristics are as follows:
(i) The study’s foundations are facts and statistics. These are gathered, explained, and then put to the test to see if the hypothesis is correct.
(ii) Human behaviour may be researched, and human behaviour regularities can be articulated as generalisations.
(iii) Subjectivity yields to objectivity; philosophical meaning yields to analytic explanation; goal yields to method; normative yields to scientific,descriptive yields to observational;..
(iv) Facts and values are distinguished, and the values are structured in such a way that the facts become meaningful.
(v) The methodology used must be self-aware, clear, and quantitative.
(vi) The goal is to develop inter-disciplinary synthesis.
(vii)”What it is” is considered more essential than “what it was” or “what it should or could be.”
(viii) Values should be used to promote facts, substance over form, theory over research, and the status quo over social transformation.
The Marxist political theory, often known as the ‘dialectical-materialist’ or’scientific-socialist’ theory, is at the other extreme of modern political theory. It explains how all phenomena arise according to general rules of motion. Its significance lies in change resulting from a struggle between opposites; between production relations and productive forces in order to achieve a better mode of production; development from a lower to a higher stage; for example, from capitalistic to socialistic and from socialistic to communistic. It is a theoretical framework for analysing and interpreting political reform that is methodical and scientific. It’s a technique for deciphering the past, comprehending the present, and forecasting the future.